The U.S. Census Bureau has the census questions that were asked for all the census years: Click on the URL above. You will see the History section, click on the tab "Through the Decades" and then click on "Index of Questions" Also included in the "Through the Decades" tab are the questionnaires and Census Instructions. (This is also available as a PDF: http://www.census.gov/history/pdf/measuringamerica.pdf with more detailed information on Census history.
The U.S. Census Bureau Publications: in PDF
I also found a publication from the US Citizenship and Immigration Services regarding their Genealogy Program. http://www.census.gov/history/pdf/uscisgenealogyprogram.pdf
The USGS publication: Using Maps in Genealogy
US Dept of Commerce; Factfinder for the Nation, Census, Availability of Census Records about Individuals.